Wednesday, August 6, 2008

Selection Process in Human Resource Management


1). Define selection?

Ans. Selection is the process of choosing the most suitable person out of all applicants. According to Thomas “Selection is the process of differentiating between applicants in order to identify those with greater likelihood of success in the job.”

2). Briefly explain the selection procedure?

Ans. The selection process consists of various steps. At each stage facts may come to light which may lead to rejection of the applicant. Steps involved in the selection are: -application
* Preliminary interview: - Initial screening is done to weed out totally undesirable/unqualified candidates at the outset. It is essentially a sorting process in which prospective candidates are given necessary information about the nature of the job and the organization.

* Application blank: - Application form is a traditional and widely used device for collecting information from candidates. The application form should provide all the information relevant to selection.
* Selection test: - Psychological are being increasingly used in employee selection. A test is sample of some aspects of an individual’s attitude, behavior and performance. It also provides systematic basis fro comparing the behavior, performance and attitudes of two persons.

* Employment interview: - An interview is a conversation between two persons. In selection it involves a personal, observational and face to face appraisal of candidates for employment.

* Medical examination: - Applicants who have crossed the above stages are sent for a physical examination either to the company’s physician or to a medical officer approved for the purpose.

* Reference checks: - The applicant is asked to mention in his application form the names and addresses of two or three persons who know him well.

* Final approval: - The shortlisted candidates by the department are finally approved by the executives of the concerned department. Employment is offered in the form of appointment letter mentioning the post, the rank, the grade, the date by which the candidate should join and other terms and conditions in brief.

3). What is psychological test?

Ans. A psychological test is an objective and standardized measure of a sample of behavior from which references about future behavior and performance of the candidate are drawn.

4). How a test programme is developed?

Ans. Developing a testing programme requires careful planning, analysis, experiment and technical knowledge. The main steps involved in designing and executing sound testing programme are: -

* Deciding the objectives: - Objectives of the testing programme are listed.
* Analyzing jobs: - Jobs are analyzed to identify the characteristics considered necessary for the success of the job.
* Choosing test: - Appropriate test are chosen to measure the identified characteristics.

* Administering the tests: - The chosen tests are applied on the desired group of persons to measure the predetermined traits.
* Establishing criteria of job success: - Success criteria may be laid down in terms of quality and quantity of output, attendance record etc.

* Analyzing results: - The tests scores are carefully analyzed in the light of success criteria. After analysis decision about the candidate’s selection or rejection is drawn.

5). What precautions should be taken while using tests

Ans. While applying tests, the following precautions should be observed: -

o Only valid tests should be used, that is, content valid, predictive valid and construct valid.
o Tests should be used only when found reliable.
o Test must be standardized so that the test scores become comparable.
o A test must be constructed in such a way that two or more persons can score the responses in the same way.
o Tests should be designed, administered, interpreted and assessed only by a trained person.

6). What are the types of tests?

Ans. Tests can be broadly classified into four and they are: -

* Aptitude test: - These tests measure the latent ability or potential of a candidate to learn a new job or skills.

* Achievement test: - These tests measure what a person can do. These determine the skill or knowledge already acquired through training and on the job experience.

* Personality test: - These are pen and paper tests used to judge the psychological make-up of a person. These probes deeply to discover clues to an individual’s value system, emotional reactions and maturity and his characteristic mood.

* Interest test: - These tests are inventories of the candidate’s likes and dislike in relation to work. These are generally used for vocational guidance.